Here is the place to find some research on differing facets of the health industry. As this section grows I will divide it into subsections, so please bear with me as this section, and the whole site, grows. If you have any questions about terminology refer to the glossary or drop me a line. I will eventually categorize this section so you can find research under subject headings. Look for this in the near future.
Consider the following peer-reviewed journal excerpts. This may help you in understanding what the Chiropractic adjustment is and what it is used for. Keep in mind that the Chiropractic adjustment is unique and should not be confused with the spinal manipulation which is performed by some MD's, Osteopaths, and Physical Therapists. There are numerous reasons you should prefer a Chiropractic adjustment over one of these, and we will get into those reasons here also. Don't expect to understand much of what you read, this is why Chiropractors go to school (that's right we actually study this stuff in great detail). You should approach your Chiropractor for help, or just E-mail me.
The Cervical Zygapophysial Joints
as a Source of Neck Pain: "Diagnostic cervical medial branch
blocks and zygaphophysial joint blocks were used to test the hypothesis that the
cervical zygapophyseal joints can be the source of pain in patients with
idiopathic neck pain. Complete temporary relief of all symptoms was
obtained in 17 out of 24 consecutive patients. Two major groups of
patients were those with neck pain and headache stemming from the C2-3 joints,
and those with neck pain and shoulder pain stemming from the C5-6 joints.
Internal-control observations in nine of the 17 patients established the
diagnostic validity of the blocks used. The high yield of positive
responders in this study probably reflects the propensity of patients with
zygapophysial joint syndromes to gravitate to a pain clinic when this condition
is not recognised in conventional clinical practice."
Joint and muscle receptors detect the limit of movement of a joint and play a
role in the mechanics of movement. The input of these receptors activates reflex
mechanisms that act to prevent joint injury.
Proprioceptive sensations have to do with the physical state of the body,
this includes positon sensation, sensation from tendon and muscle, sensation of
equilibrium, and pressure sensation from the bottom of the feet.
More than half of all nerve fibers ascending and descending in the spinal
cord are proprioceptive fibers which provide pathways for multisegmental
reflexes. The ascending pathways involve two basic types; Exteroreceptors from
our eyes and ears which provide information about conditions and changes in our
external environments, and Proprioceptors which transmit imput from the body to
let the central nervous system know the status of our internal environment; eg
joint position, pressure, tension, movement, load distribution, and muscle tone.
Afferent input influences central motor programs. Proprioceptive input from
muscles and joints is required to adjust the motor program by modulating muscle
An injured joint is likely to cause persistently disturbed sensory feedback
to the central nervous system and therefore existing motor programs have to be
Adjustive forces were more than enough to stimulate every type of mechano and
nocioceptor in all tissues through which the force is transmitted, generating a
marked afferent barrage of the central nervous system.
This study compared spinal manipulation versus stretching exercises for 20
patients with chronic neck pain and altered positon of the head. The results for
spinal manipulation indicated a 41% improvement in head repositioning skills,
versus a 12% improvent for the stretching group.
In 112 post-whiplash patients with cervicogenic vertigo (sic: partly from
damaged proprioceptive pathways) 90% were symptom free by 18 adjustments. Goals
of care: to normalize motor function and afferent input. Disturbances in
cervical soft tissues may be important in producing vertigo due to the potency
of their disturbed afferent input.
Johnson.MSc. Bootman. PhD, Arch Intern Med 1995; 155(Oct 9):1949-1956.
In Medicine the focus is on symptoms & specific
etiologies. The concept of disease has supplanted that of wellness.
20% of patients admitted to a university hospital medical
service suffered iatrogenic (physician induced) injury and 20% of those injuries
were serious or fatal. In 1991 Harvard Medical Practice Study reported that
nearly 4% of patients hospitalized in NY state suffered an injury that prolonged
their hospital stay or resulted in measurable disability. This equaled 98,609
patients in 1984. Nearly 14% fo these injuries were fatal. If these rates are
typical of the U.S. then 180,000 people die a year partly as a result of
iatrogenic injury, the equivalent of 3 jumbo jet crashes every 2 days. In
addition 35% - 45% of diagnoses of cause of death were incorrect when
confirmation was attempted on autopsy.
In clinical practice 30% to 80% of medical patients have
conditions for which no physiological or organic cause is found after routine
investigation. Medical doctors do not assess patient perceived health status
accurately, and most have little training in assessment of functional disorders.
In 1986, the economic cost of treating arthritis (degenerative
joint disease, or DJD) in the USA has been estimated at 8.6billion. However the
cost for treating side effects of non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDís)
in 1986 was 3.9 billion (45% of the primary cost).
In the USA 100,000,000 (this number is NOT a misprint)
prescriptions for NSAIDís were dispensed in 1986 (4% of all prescriptions).
30% of patients taking NSAIDís who have persistent GI
symptoms are likely to have a chronic peptic ulcer.
Adverse events occurred in 21% of USA patients taking
NSAIDís and 25% of UK patients.
12,000 tons (approximately 40 billion tablets) of aspirin were
sold over the counter in 1986.
From the FDA (Food and Drug Administration) meeting February
22-23, 1990, some committee members felt: "aspirin is an exceptionally
versatile and effective drug with many valuable therapeutic applications, but
that it is an unacceptably dangerous drug for non-prescription self
administration...most of the NSAIDís are so much safer than aspirin that the
reclassification of aspirin as a prescription-only drug is desirable".
Upper cervical adjustments appear to have an influence on
Use of spinal manipulative therapy in the treatment of
duodenal ulcer: a pilot study. In this preliminary study, the use
of spinal manipulative therapy resulted in pain relief after 1-9 (average 3.8)
days and clinical remission an average of 10 days earlier than traditional care
The contribution of clinical observation to neurological mechanisms in
The reflex effects of spinal somatic nerve stimulation on visceral function.
Somatovisceral reflex responses were examined at various sites in
anesthetized animals. Specifically, pinching of the abdominal skin was
found to inbibit gastric motility in the rat.
The interplay of the autonomic nervous system and its divisions
(sympathetic, parasympathetic, and enteric) are described in regard to the
Non Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory drugs are associated with both
upper and lower gastrointestinal bleeding. The authors here conclude that
NSAID use is strongly associated with these GI bleeds.
Gastric erosions induced by nonsteriodal anti-inflammatory drugs:
clinical significance, pathogenesis, and therapeutic perspectives. This is
a review paper in which the authors suggest taking a drug called misprostol with
NSAID therapy to prevent gastric erosions from the latter (and which drug will
you take to ward off the side effects of the misprostol?).
Role of Helicobacter pylori in ulcer healing and recurrence of gastric and
duodenal ulcers in long-term NSAID users. While H. Pylore, a bacteria, is
the causative agent in ulcers, there must be a predisposing factors for them to
cause damage. The damage NSAIDs do to the protective coating of the
stomach/duodenum is what gives the bacteria the opportunity to cause damage.
In this study in particular the authors found that H. Pylori eradication does
not confer any significant advantage on the healing of gastric and duodenal
ulcers associated with long-term NSAID use.
Meta-analysis of risk factors for peptic ulcer:
Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, Helicogbacter pylori, and smoking.
According to this article between 89% and 95% of peptic ulcer-related serious
upper GI events may be attributed to NSAID use, H. pylori infection, and
Gastrointestinal injury, and cytoprotection. This is a
review paper. Gastrointestinal toxicity caused by NSAIDs is the
most frequent drug side effect in the United States. NSAIDs are
implicated in the development of complicated peptic ulcer disease and injurey to
the small bowel and colon. NSAIDs interfere with prostaglandin-mediated
epithelial defense mechanisms and also cause direct epithelial toxicity.