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Here is the place to find some research on differing facets of the health industry.  As this section grows I will divide it into subsections, so please bear with me as this section, and the whole site, grows.  If you have any questions about terminology refer to the glossary or drop me a line.  I will eventually categorize this section so you can find research under subject headings.   Look for this in the near future.

Consider the following peer-reviewed journal excerpts. This may help you in understanding what the Chiropractic adjustment is and what it is used for. Keep in mind that the Chiropractic adjustment is unique and should not be confused with the spinal manipulation which is performed by some MD's, Osteopaths, and Physical Therapists. There are numerous reasons you should prefer a Chiropractic adjustment over one of these, and we will get into those reasons here also.  Don't expect to understand much of what you read, this is why Chiropractors go to school (that's right we actually study this stuff in great detail). You should approach your Chiropractor for help, or just E-mail me.

The Cervical Zygapophysial Joints as a Source of Neck Pain:  "Diagnostic cervical medial branch blocks and zygaphophysial joint blocks were used to test the hypothesis that the cervical zygapophyseal joints can be the source of pain in patients with idiopathic neck pain.   Complete temporary relief of all symptoms was obtained in 17 out of 24 consecutive patients.  Two major groups of patients were those with neck pain and headache stemming from the C2-3 joints, and those with neck pain and shoulder pain stemming from the C5-6 joints.  Internal-control observations in nine of the 17 patients established the diagnostic validity of the blocks used.  The high yield of positive responders in this study probably reflects the propensity of patients with zygapophysial joint syndromes to gravitate to a pain clinic when this condition is not recognised in conventional clinical practice."
Nikolai Bogduk, BSc(Med), MB BS, PhD and Anthony Marsland MB, ChB, DA FFARACS

Joint and muscle receptors detect the limit of movement of a joint and play a role in the mechanics of movement. The input of these receptors activates reflex mechanisms that act to prevent joint injury.
Zimny (Dept of Anatomy). Am J Anatomy 1988;182:16-32.

Proprioceptive sensations have to do with the physical state of the body, this includes positon sensation, sensation from tendon and muscle, sensation of equilibrium, and pressure sensation from the bottom of the feet.
Guyton. MD. 1991

More than half of all nerve fibers ascending and descending in the spinal cord are proprioceptive fibers which provide pathways for multisegmental reflexes. The ascending pathways involve two basic types; Exteroreceptors from our eyes and ears which provide information about conditions and changes in our external environments, and Proprioceptors which transmit imput from the body to let the central nervous system know the status of our internal environment; eg joint position, pressure, tension, movement, load distribution, and muscle tone.
Guyton, MD. Medical Physiology 1991:591

Afferent input influences central motor programs. Proprioceptive input from muscles and joints is required to adjust the motor program by modulating muscle activity.
Dietz (Dept Neurology & Neurophys). Physio Reviews 1992;72(1):33-69.

An injured joint is likely to cause persistently disturbed sensory feedback to the central nervous system and therefore existing motor programs have to be modified.
Johansson (Dept Physio). Neuro-orthopedic 1990; 9:1-23.

Adjustive forces were more than enough to stimulate every type of mechano and nocioceptor in all tissues through which the force is transmitted, generating a marked afferent barrage of the central nervous system.
Gillette, MS. Manual Med 1987;3:1-14.

This study compared spinal manipulation versus stretching exercises for 20 patients with chronic neck pain and altered positon of the head. The results for spinal manipulation indicated a 41% improvement in head repositioning skills, versus a 12% improvent for the stretching group.
Rogers, DC. JMPT 1997;20(1).

In 112 post-whiplash patients with cervicogenic vertigo (sic: partly from damaged proprioceptive pathways) 90% were symptom free by 18 adjustments. Goals of care: to normalize motor function and afferent input. Disturbances in cervical soft tissues may be important in producing vertigo due to the potency of their disturbed afferent input.
Fitz-Ritson, DC. Cervicogenic Vertigo. JMPT 1991;14(3):193-198.

Drug-related morbidity and mortality was estimated to cost $76.6 billion per year in the ambulatory setting in the U.S. Out of this figure the largest cost was drug-related hospitilizations at 8.76 million admissions at a cost of $47.4 billion per year. This is 62% of the total cost. The cost of drug-related problems in ambulatory care in U.S. is considerable.
Johnson.MSc. Bootman. PhD, Arch Intern Med 1995; 155(Oct 9):1949-1956.

In Medicine the focus is on symptoms & specific etiologies. The concept of disease has supplanted that of wellness.
Coulter, PhD. J Can Chiro Assoc 1993;37(2):97-103

20% of patients admitted to a university hospital medical service suffered iatrogenic (physician induced) injury and 20% of those injuries were serious or fatal. In 1991 Harvard Medical Practice Study reported that nearly 4% of patients hospitalized in NY state suffered an injury that prolonged their hospital stay or resulted in measurable disability. This equaled 98,609 patients in 1984. Nearly 14% fo these injuries were fatal. If these rates are typical of the U.S. then 180,000 people die a year partly as a result of iatrogenic injury, the equivalent of 3 jumbo jet crashes every 2 days. In addition 35% - 45% of diagnoses of cause of death were incorrect when confirmation was attempted on autopsy.
Leape MD. JAMA 1994; Dec 21:1851-57.

In clinical practice 30% to 80% of medical patients have conditions for which no physiological or organic cause is found after routine investigation. Medical doctors do not assess patient perceived health status accurately, and most have little training in assessment of functional disorders.
Wilson, Cleary. JAMA 1995;Jan 4: 59-65.

In 1986, the economic cost of treating arthritis (degenerative joint disease, or DJD) in the USA has been estimated at 8.6billion. However the cost for treating side effects of non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDís) in 1986 was 3.9 billion (45% of the primary cost).
Arthritis & Rheumatism 32:930, 1989.

In the USA 100,000,000 (this number is NOT a misprint) prescriptions for NSAIDís were dispensed in 1986 (4% of all prescriptions).
Arthritis & Rheumatism 32:926, 1989.

30% of patients taking NSAIDís who have persistent GI symptoms are likely to have a chronic peptic ulcer.
Arthritis & Rheumatism 32:929, 1989.

Adverse events occurred in 21% of USA patients taking NSAIDís and 25% of UK patients.
Arthritis & Rheumatism 32:926, 1989.

12,000 tons (approximately 40 billion tablets) of aspirin were sold over the counter in 1986.
Arthritis & Rheumatism 32:926, 1989.

From the FDA (Food and Drug Administration) meeting February 22-23, 1990, some committee members felt: "aspirin is an exceptionally versatile and effective drug with many valuable therapeutic applications, but that it is an unacceptably dangerous drug for non-prescription self administration...most of the NSAIDís are so much safer than aspirin that the reclassification of aspirin as a prescription-only drug is desirable".
Arthritis & Rheumatism 33:1057, 1990.

Upper cervical adjustments appear to have an influence on gastric function. 
J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1980;3:226-228.

Use of spinal manipulative therapy in the treatment of duodenal ulcer:   a pilot study.  In this preliminary study, the use of spinal manipulative therapy resulted in pain relief after 1-9 (average 3.8) days and clinical remission an average of 10 days earlier than traditional care (meaning drugs). 
J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1994;17:310-313.

The contribution of clinical observation to neurological mechanisms in manipulative therapy.
The neurobiologic mechanisms in manipulative therapy. New York: Plenum Press, 1978:3-25.

The reflex effects of spinal somatic nerve stimulation on visceral function.   Somatovisceral reflex responses were examined at various sites in anesthetized animals.  Specifically, pinching of the abdominal skin was found to inbibit gastric motility in the rat.
J Manipulative Physion Ther 1992;15:57-61.

The interplay of the autonomic nervous system and its divisions (sympathetic, parasympathetic, and enteric) are described in regard to the gastrointestinal tract.
Guyton's textbook of medical physiology. 5th ed. Philadelphia:   W.B. Saunders Co, 1976;852-3.

Non Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory drugs are associated with both upper and lower gastrointestinal bleeding.  The authors here conclude that NSAID use is strongly associated with these GI bleeds.
Dig Dis Sci 1997;42:990-997.

Gastric erosions induced by nonsteriodal anti-inflammatory drugs:  clinical significance, pathogenesis, and therapeutic perspectives.  This is a review paper in which the authors suggest taking a drug called misprostol with NSAID therapy to prevent gastric erosions from the latter (and which drug will you take to ward off the side effects of the misprostol?).
J Assoc Acad Minor Phys 1995;6:97-99.

Role of Helicobacter pylori in ulcer healing and recurrence of gastric and duodenal ulcers in long-term NSAID users.  While H. Pylore, a bacteria, is the causative agent in ulcers, there must be a predisposing factors for them to cause damage.  The damage NSAIDs do to the protective coating of the stomach/duodenum is what gives the bacteria the opportunity to cause damage.  In this study in particular the authors found that H. Pylori eradication does not confer any significant advantage on the healing of gastric and duodenal ulcers associated with long-term NSAID use.
Gut. 1996;39:22-26.

Meta-analysis of risk factors for peptic ulcer:  Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, Helicogbacter pylori, and smoking.  According to this article between 89% and 95% of peptic ulcer-related serious upper GI events may be attributed to NSAID use, H. pylori infection, and cigarette smoking.
J Clin Gastroenterol 1997;24:2-17.

Gastrointestinal injury, and cytoprotection.  This is a review paper.  Gastrointestinal toxicity caused by NSAIDs is the most frequent drug side effect in the United States.  NSAIDs are implicated in the development of complicated peptic ulcer disease and injurey to the small bowel and colon.  NSAIDs interfere with prostaglandin-mediated epithelial defense mechanisms and also cause direct epithelial toxicity.
Gastroenterol Clin North Am 1996;25:279-298.


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